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NAA Inspectors Training Course - Aerodrome Safety Regulation (Basic)
In order to achieve the learning objectives specified below, the course aims to convey an understanding of:
The complexities of the Total Aviation System and how this applies to aerodrome safety regulation, since in addition to the issues covered by EASA PART ADR, it must also be understood how this interfaces with such issues as ATM/ANS, Instrument Flight Procedure Design, AIS, Flight Operations Regulations (EASA PART OPS) etc.
Further, detailed information on the regulatory framework is provided along with a review of significant parts the Basic Regulation (216/2008, the Implementing Rules (139/2014 and the regulation covering EASA’s working methods for standardization inspections and monitoring the application of the rules (628/2013).
Finally, an important aspect of being able to identify and justify findings, is to have a proper understanding of the intent and purpose behind the regulations, Particularly so, when the regulations are objective based, but also when they are more prescriptive, because then one must be able to assess the safety implications of partial compliance or alternative means of compliance.
To this end, some important concepts, ideas and purposes behind some elements of physical characteristics, visual aids, obstacle (and land-use) management, Wildlife and Foreign Object Debris control and Aeronautical data management is covered.
In order to emphasise the interdisciplinary nature of safe aerodrome operation, and consequently the need for coordination and cooperation, one or more of the following subjects will be reviewed:
- Aerodrome operation in limited visibility
- Winter operation
- Runway incursion prevention
NOTE: Due to the amount of details contained in the regulations, AMCs and GM as well as the CS, it is impossible to cover every detail. However, the philosophies, concepts and principles are well covered so that the students are well prepared to use and apply the material in their work.
Also, the need for monitoring, preventive and corrective maintenance is discussed where appropriate.
The following detailed syllabus is proposed:
- M01 The Total Aviation System
Comment: Purpose is to show how all aspects of aviation are connected through the ICAO Annexes and, based on this, emphasise the need for coordination and cooperation between all parties; within the CAA as well as outside. The aerodrome is then placed in this context with same emphasis on coordination since many hazards and threats can be found in the interfaces between aerodrome design and operation, air traffic management and flight operation. Some examples are operation under limited visibility, runway incursion prevention and winter operation.
- M02 Safety regulation in Europe
Comment: Short background, then the regulatory hierarchy/structure is explained from 216/2008 down to the IR, AMC/GM and CS. Also, the concept of “hard” and “soft” law is explained (in case attendees are not yet familiar with it).
- M03 The Basic Regulation (BR) 216/2008,
Comment: Reviewed in detail (Articles 1,3,4,8a,10, 29, 54,55)
- M04 Definitions
Comment: Definitions from 216/2008 and 139/2014 Art 2 and Annex 1, the latter only those which differ from similar in Annex 14 or which are not found in Annex 14.
- M05 Implementing Rules 139/2014
Comment: Structure and Articles (3, 5, 6, 7, 11) are reviewed.
- M06 Authority Requirements, 139/2014 Annex II, ADR.AR
Comment: ADR.AR ex ADR.C on certification, which is handled in a separate module (M09) is reviewed. Emphasis is on Management System and Oversight, particularly the concept of oversight planning cycle. Reference is made to the AMCs and GM throughout.
- M07 Organisation Requirements – Aerodrome Operators, 139/2014 Annex III, ADR.OR
Comment: Reviewed is ADR.OR ex ADR.OR.D, Management and ADR.OR.B, Certification, as these are handled in separate modules (M08 & M09). Reference is made to the AMCs and GM throughout.
- M08 Organisation and Management, ADR.OR.D
Comment: ADR.OR.D is reviewed. Emphasis is on organization, personnel, competencies, contracted activities and Management System. Reference is made to the AMCs and GM throughout.
- M09 Certification, 139/2014 ADR.AR.C and ADR.OR.B
Comment: Initially, basic certification principles are covered. This includes comments on how to select the appropriate CS for the runways, taxiways and stands (infrastructure, visual aids, obstacle limitation surfaces etc) as well as some of the operational requirements inclusive RFF Category, based on desired operational concept (Non-instrument to degrees of Low visibility capability) and types of traffic.
Further, the steps of the certification process are covered based on ADR.AR.C and ADR.OR.B with associated AMC/GM. Finally, the Terms of the Certificate are reviewed.
- M10 Non-Conformities and Deviations
Comment. This lecture deals with situations where the CS cannot be complied with. The concept of Equivalent Level of Safety, Special Conditions and DAAD are discussed.
Also discussed and reviewed here, are basic principles of risk assessment, emphasizing the need to understand the intent of the CS with which compliance cannot be achieved, and also the need for an interdisciplinary approach in order to assess the consequences for, and the need for cooperation with, for example the Air Traffic Services and the flight operational side (aircraft operators)
- M11 EASA Standardisation, 628/2013
Comment: This issue will be reviewed (Article 1 – 27).
- M12 Physical Characteristics, CS Chapter A – G
Comment: A review and explanation of the purpose and intent behind the CS for runways, taxiways, stands etc. References are the CS with GM and practical examples as appropriate. Also, the need for monitoring, preventive and corrective maintenance is discussed.
- M13 Visual Aids, CS Chapter K – R
Comment: A review and explanation of the purpose and intent behind the CS for visual aids. Also, the need for monitoring, preventive and corrective maintenance is discussed.
- M14 Obstacle Management, ADR.OPS.A, CS Chapter J
Comment: A discussion of the different types of obstacles and the different types of obstacle limitation surfaces and areas (CS, PANS OPS, Annex 10) and the consequences of penetrating these.
Also, how obstacles can be managed, ref ADR.OPS. Parallels are drawn with Land use Management and Management of dangerous or misleading lights.
- M15 Aerodrome Emergency Planning, Rescue and Firefighting Service, ADR.OR.OPS.B.005, 010
Comment: A review of the purpose of the RFF service, what is needed to achieve the purpose, how to determine the applicable RFF Category etc.
Also, a brief discussion of aerodrome emergency planning, emphasizing the need to include both internal and external agencies.
- M16 Aeronautical data, ADR.OR.D.007, ADR.OPS.A
Comment: A review of the different types of aeronautical data, the safety criticality of some and the need for a robust process in order to ensure that published data are at all times complete and correct.
- M17 Wildlife and FOD management, ADR.OPS.B.020, 015
Comment: A review of the requirement and basic principles for management of these important areas.
- M18 Aerodrome Manual, ADR.OR.E
Comment: The purpose, content and structure will be reviewed. Also, the various input sources that pertain to the process of ensuring that the manual is maintained as a living document based on operational experience and changes to both the regulatory framework and the aerodrome and its operational concept.
Note: Time permitting, one or more of these subjects could also be discussed:
• Aerodrome Operation under limited visibility – Basic principles, ADR.OPS.B.045
• Aerodrome Operation under Winter Conditions – Basic Principles, ADR.OPS.B.035
• Runway Incursion Prevention
Examples/case studies from own experience, which will be delivered upon discussing the relevant modules:
- A Immediate reaction to a safety problem.
During an audit, it was discovered that there had been a misunderstanding of the runway strip/RESA concept by both the Authority and the Operator at the time of certification, resulting in declared distances that did not provide any overrun protection at all. Further, the terrain beyond both runway ends was inhospitable. Identification and actions will be discussed.
- B Insufficient runway/taxiway separation.
A classic case which can be handled by technical procedure based on a simple risk assessment. Emphasizes the need for coordination and cooperation between aerodrome design/operation and Air Traffic Service.
- C Terminal building and apron too close to the runway based on current aircraft types. Was ok for the smaller types used when the aerodrome was built, but new long and tall aeroplanes penetrate the transitional surface during push-back.
Case used to discuss risk assessment, ELOS and whether this is a case for Special Conditions or DAAD.
- D A total evaluation of an aerodrome where:
- The runway is short, runway strip and RESA are marginal, terrain penetrate most obstacle limitation services to some degree.
- The Non-Precision approach is offset due to terrain. Due to same, the turn onto extended centreline is late, and from then on the final 400 feet descend is on a 4.5 degree visual glidepath system. The total approach procedure, inclusive the missed approach have several deviations from PANS OPS. Also, due to terrain, the departure is challenging. Add to that an interesting turbulence situation under certain wind conditions.
The case is used to illustrate the need for a total assessment including flight operational aspects. This seems to be a good case for DAAD, and special requirements on operators (crew qualifications, procedures etc) are included in the mitigating measures.
- E Other examples will be used during the course as, and where it would be natural
- F Students will also be encouraged to suggest cases/examples from their own experience
NAA Inspectors shall be able to
- Identify, and
the findings with regard to Aerodromes according to the European regulatory framework currently in place.
Who should take this course
This is an ideal course for (newly hired) CAA Aerodrome inspectors, whether they come from another CAA department or from outside.
An optional JAA TO examination (EUR 30,-) is available for this course. Candidates who pass a JAA TO Examination, receive an ECAC/JAA TO Certificate of Accomplishment.
Please note that registrations for examinations will be done during the training course in consultant with the trainer.
5 days, starting at 09:00 and ending at approximately 17:00 each day.
NOTE: Participants are kindly requested to bring a laptop to the workshop, in order to access digital course material, which will be provided on a USB-stick during the training course.